It’s crucial to buy and prepare fresh meat and seafood wherever possible. Tyramine levels may be high in pickles, smoked food, fermented food, and cured food. Some examples are pickled herring, corned beef, salami, and pepperoni. Check the labels on any packaged luncheon meats, and stay away from any that have nitrates or nitrites added. With meals like bacon, sausage, and hot dogs, exercise caution. Tyramine levels in these products are minimal, yet some people may get headaches as a result.
Tyramine levels are significant in cheese varieties that go through the aging process. Cheddar, blue, swiss, parmesan, feta, and Camembert are some of these cheeses. According to a study, aged cheese contains spermidine, a substance that helps protect the liver from harm.
2. Processed or cured meats
Tyramine levels increase as a food takes longer to digest. Tyramine and age are related to one another in the same way that they are to cheese. Hot dogs, bologna, bacon, smoked salmon, and dried sausages like pepperoni and salami are examples of processed, cured, or smoked meats.
3. Fermented or Pickled Vegetables
Tyramine levels are high in kimchi, pickled beets, pickled cucumbers, pickled peppers, and sauerkraut. Tyramine is also present in fermented soy products such tofu, miso, and soy sauce.
4. Tropical and citrus fruits
Tyramine levels are high in citrus fruits like orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, and tangerine. Tyramine levels in tropical fruits are increased as they ripen. If you have a high tyramine sensitivity, stay away from ripe bananas, pineapple, and avocado.
5. Drunken beverages
Tyramine can be found in fermented alcohol. There is a lot of tyramine in beer, red wine, vermouth, sherry, and several liqueurs.
foods low or free of tyramine
For low-tyramine diets, fresh, frozen, and tinned meats are permitted. This includes poultry and fish. Additionally, you may add the following:
- grains, such as rice, bread, cereal, and pasta
- unaged luncheon or packaged meats (except for salami and other aged or cured meats)
Make sure to pair lower-tyramine liquors with meals if you do. Any traces of tyramine in the liquor will be absorbed by your body more slowly as a result of the food.
Regardless of whether a food or beverage has a high or low tyramine content, if you have any negative effects, stop consuming it and tell a medical expert about it.
On a reduced tyramine diet, you should stay away from foods high in tyramine. These typically include cheeses and other aged or fermented foods like salami. Fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, eggs, and non-fermented dairy products are foods that are low in tyramine.
Shrimp paste with fish sauce
Due to their manufacturing processes, these two components also contain a lot of tyramine. While neither choice is something you’ll be eating on its own, fish sauce and shrimp paste are both used in a variety of cuisines.
This implies that you should thoroughly read recipes before deciding to prepare them. Additionally, you might need to ask the chef about the components in your food if you’re eating out.
Effects on the body and pharmacology 
Tyramine has been found in the human brain, and postmortem examination has corroborated this. Additionally, the identification of TAAR1, a G protein-coupled receptor with strong tyramine affinity, raised the idea that tyramine functions directly as a neuromodulator. The TAAR1 receptor is present in peripheral tissues like the kidneys as well as the brain. In humans, tyramine acts as an agonist and binds to TAAR1.
The monoamine oxidases (mainly MAO-A), FMO3, PNMT, DBH, and CYP2D6 physically metabolize tyramine. Tyramine is metabolized into 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde by human monoamine oxidase enzymes. Tyramine can displace stored monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine from pre-synaptic vesicles, which can lead to a hypertensive crisis if monoamine metabolism is hindered by the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and meals high in tyramine are consumed. Because it reaches noradrenergic nerve terminals and displaces significant amounts of norepinephrine, which enters the bloodstream and produces vasoconstriction, tyramine is referred to as a “false neurotransmitter.”
Additionally, it has been discovered that cocaine inhibits the rise in blood pressure that was formerly attributed to tyramine. This is explained by the fact that cocaine prevents adrenaline from returning to the brain.
A British pharmacist first became aware of this effect when he saw that his wife, who was on an MAOI at the time, experienced terrible migraines after eating cheese. Even though other foods can result in the same issue, it is still known as the “cheese effect” or “cheese crisis” for this reason.: 30-31
Although some aged cheeses, like Stilton, contain enough tyramine to have hypertensive effects, the majority of manufactured cheeses do not.
Tyramine pressor response, which is defined as an elevation in systolic blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more, can be brought on by a high dietary tyramine consumption (or a food intake of tyramine while taking MAO inhibitors). It is believed that the vasoconstriction, elevated heart rate, and raised blood pressure of the pressor response are caused by an enhanced release of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from neuronal cytosol or storage vesicles. Adrenergic crisis may happen in extreme circumstances. [Required medical citation] Tyramine use also causes migraine attacks in sensitive people and can even result in stroke, while the exact mechanism is unknown. Dopamine, vasodilation, and circulatory issues are all connected to migraines. Tyramine may have adrenergic effects on migraine, according to double-blind studies.
There may be a connection between migraines and high tyramine levels, according to research. An analysis published in Neurological Sciences in 2007
presented findings demonstrating that the hypothalamus, amygdala, and dopaminergic system exhibit increased levels of circulating neurotransmitters and neuromodulators (such as tyramine, octopamine, and synephrine) during migraine and cluster disorders. Over-representation of migraine sufferers among those with insufficient natural monoamine oxidase causes issues comparable to those experienced by those using MAO inhibitors. The amount of tyramine in many migraine triggers is substantial.
However, after repeated exposure to tyramine, there is a reduced pressor response as tyramine is converted to octopamine, which is then bundled with norepinephrine in synaptic vesicles (noradrenaline).
[Reference needed] As a result, after prolonged tyramine exposure, these vesicles have higher levels of octopamine and lower levels of norepinephrine. Tyramine causes the release of these vesicles, which results in a diminished pressor response because less norepinephrine enters the synapses and because octopamine does not activate alpha or beta adrenergic receptors. [Required medical citation]
Tyramine consumption of roughly 10 to 25 mg is needed while using an MAO inhibitor (MAOI), compared to 6 to 10 mg for a mild reaction.
By using the pancreatic digesting enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin, the body can lessen the production of tyramine.
When previous therapies have failed to cure depression, in some circumstances, an MAOI can.
How much tyramine is in fish?
foods low or free of tyramine For low-tyramine diets, fresh, frozen, and tinned meats are permitted. This includes poultry and fish. Additionally, you may add the following: grains, such as rice, bread, cereal, and pasta. unaged luncheon or packaged meats (except for salami and other aged or cured meats)
Is there tyramine in tuna?
Tyramine residues were found in mackerel, sardines, and tuna samples in amounts more than 100 ppm in about 60%, 86.7%, and 80% of the samples, respectively. Tyramine and histamine are present in all samples in proportions of 66.7% and 71.1%, respectively.
Is there tyramine in honey?
Cakes, pastries, and muffins produced with ingredients low in tyramine and histamine, like apples, cottage cheese, flour, sugar, maple syrup, and honey, shouldn’t make your symptoms worse.
Do avocados have tyramine in them?
Tyrosine, an amino acid that the body naturally converts to tyramine, can be found in avocados. Tyramine in high concentrations has been shown in tests to cause headaches and raise blood pressure, and it is thought that tyramine in avocados contributes to the development of migraines. Avocado is one of the foods to “Use With Caution” if you suffer from migraines, according to the National Headache Foundation.
Is tyramine present in beef?
We all need to cut back on the processed meat in our diets, but persons using MAOIs need to be more careful with these animal proteins.
Tyramine is prevalent in processed and cured pork products including salami, sausage, pepperoni, and hot dogs, according to the Mayo Clinic. Instead, choose fresh proteins like organic chicken breast, grass-fed lean beef, or wild salmon.
Do apples have tyramine in them?
Avoid fruits that are too ripe (high in tyramine). all more fresh fruit. (apples, apricots, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, cantaloupe, grapes, melon, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, pears, strawberries, and watermelon)
Is tomato tyramine-rich?
Tomatoes. Tyramine, an amino acid found in abundance in tomatoes, causes the brain to generate norepinephrine, a stimulant that increases brain activity and prevents sleep. Other tyramine-rich foods include aged cheeses like brie and Stilton, soy sauce, eggplant, and red wine.
Does mozzerella include a lot of tyramine?
Do I have to avoid eating Swiss cheese when taking MAOI medication? I looked online, but some of the sites may have had outdated information because they would not permit mozzarella, provolone, etc., even though I am aware that they are generally regarded as acceptable. I simply can’t recall if Swiss is OK. Grand Rapids, M.F.
A lot of contradicting information is available regarding the MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) medication diet. The MAOI class of medications is used for a number of conditions, including Parkinson’s, depression, and headache prevention.
It’s crucial to limit meals with higher levels of tyramine because there can be a risky food interaction with this medication that causes dangerously high blood pressure.
Describe tyramine. It is an amino acid that is naturally present in aged foods including some cheeses, cured meats (such as sausage, pepperoni, and salami), soy sauce, some pickled foods, beer, and wine rather than being added to them. Tyramine also grows in leftover food because food ages as it is stored in the refrigerator; for this reason, the MAOI food lists advise against cooking extra food for leftovers.
I’ll get back to your cheese query. The least aged cheeses, like American, cottage, ricotta, Velveeta, and cream cheese, are the ones that are deemed acceptable. Provolone and mozzarella are said to have less tyramine. Cheddar, stilton, camembert, Swiss, and blue cheeses are the ones that have the highest tyramine content (and the more aged the cheese, the higher the tyramine).
I was always told that using sea salt was healthier than using conventional table salt from the grocery store, but I recently learned that this is not the case. Can you provide me a little more information on this? — Grand Rapids, V.D.
A: Compared to conventional table salt, sea salt has a slightly different flavor and is a gourmet product. However, consuming excessive amounts of any salt could have a negative impact on your health if you struggle with high blood pressure, fluid retention, or your heart. To enhance flavor in meals, start experimenting with herbs and use minimal amounts of salt of all kinds.
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